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The question shows a pair of words in which the first is related to the second in some way. It is followed by a single word which bears a similar relation to one of the given alternatives. Find the correct alternative to complete the analogy.
Answer the question based on the given passage
Management is a set of processes that can keep a complicated system of people and technology running smoothly. The most important aspects of management include planning, budgeting, organising, staffing, controlling, and problem-solving. Leadership is a set of processes that creates organisations in the first place or adapts them to significantly changing circumstances. Leadership defines what the future should look like, aligns people with that vision, and inspires them to make it happen despite the obstacles. This distinction is absolutely crucial for our purposes here: Successful transformation is 70 to 90 per cent leadership and only 10 to 30 percent management. Yet for historical reasons, many organisations today don't have much leadership. And almost everyone thinks about the problem here as one of managing change. For most of this country, as we created thousands and thousands of large organisations for the first time in human history, we didn't have enough good managers to keep all those bureaucracies functioning. So many companies and universities developed management programs and hundreds and thousands of people were encouraged to learn management on the job. And they did. But, people were taught little about leadership. To some degree, management was emphasised because it's easier to teach than leadership. But even more so, management was the main item on the twentieth-century agenda because that's what was needed. For every entrepreneur or business builder who was a leader, we needed hundreds of managers to run their ever-growing enterprises. Unfortunately for us today, this emphasis on management has often been institutionalised in corporate cultures that discourage employees from learning how to lead. Ironically, past success is usually the key ingredient in producing this outcome. The syndrome, as I have observed it on many occasions, goes like this: success creates some degree of marked dominance which in turn produces much growth. After a while keeping the ever-larger organisation under control becomes the primary challenge. So attention turns inward and managerial competencies are nurtured. With a strong emphasis on management but not leadership, bureaucracy and an inward focus takeover. But with continued success, the result mostly of market dominance, the problem often goes unaddressed and an unhealthy arrogance begins to evolve. All of these characteristics then make any transformation effort much more difficult. Arrogant managers can over-evaluate their current performance and competitive position, listen poorly and learn slowly. Inwardly focused employees can have difficulty seeing the very forces that present threats and opportunities. Bureaucratic cultures can smother those who want to respond to shifting conditions. And the lack of leadership leaves no force inside these organisations to break out of the morass.
Q1. Why did companies and universities develop programmes to prepare managers in such a large number?
a. (A) Companies and universities wanted to generate funds through these programmes
b. (B) The large number of organisations were created as they needed managers in good number
c. (C) Organisations did not want to spend their scarce resources in training managers
d. (D) Organisations wanted to create communication network through trained managers
Q2. How has the author defined management?
a. It is the process of adapting organisations to changing circumstances.
b. It is the system of aligning people with the direction it has taken.
c. It refers to creating a vision to help direct the change effectively.
d. Creating better performance through customer orientation.
Q3. What is the historical reason for many organisations not having leadership?
a. A view that leaders are born, they are not made
b. Leaders lack managerial skills and organisations need managers
c. Leaders are weak in carrying out traditional functions of management
d. Leaders allow too much complacency in organisations
Q4. Which of the following characteristics help organisations in their transformation efforts?
a. Emphasis on leadership but not management
b. A strong and dogmatic culture
c. Bureaucratic and inward looking approach
d. Failing to acknowledge the value of customers and shareholders
Q5. Which of the following is similar in meaning of the word 'smother' as used in the passage?
The given sentences when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Each sentence is labelled with a number. Choose the most logical order of sentences from among the four given choices to construct a coherent paragraph.
1. He was so busy with them that he did not get time to eat.
2. Thousands of people came to him and asked different types of questions.
3. No one cared to see that he had his food or rest that night.
4. Swami Vivekanand once stayed in a small village.
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