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Answer the question based on the given passage
Management is a set of processes that can keep a complicated system of people and technology running smoothly. The most important aspects of management include planning, budgeting, organising, staffing, controlling, and problem-solving. Leadership is a set of processes that creates organisations in the first place or adapts them to significantly changing circumstances. Leadership defines what the future should look like, aligns people with that vision, and inspires them to make it happen despite the obstacles. This distinction is absolutely crucial for our purposes here: Successful transformation is 70 to 90 per cent leadership and only 10 to 30 percent management. Yet for historical reasons, many organisations today don't have much leadership. And almost everyone thinks about the problem here as one of managing change. For most of this country, as we created thousands and thousands of large organisations for the first time in human history, we didn't have enough good managers to keep all those bureaucracies functioning. So many companies and universities developed management programs and hundreds and thousands of people were encouraged to learn management on the job. And they did. But, people were taught little about leadership. To some degree, management was emphasised because it's easier to teach than leadership. But even more so, management was the main item on the twentieth-century agenda because that's what was needed. For every entrepreneur or business builder who was a leader, we needed hundreds of managers to run their ever-growing enterprises. Unfortunately for us today, this emphasis on management has often been institutionalised in corporate cultures that discourage employees from learning how to lead. Ironically, past success is usually the key ingredient in producing this outcome. The syndrome, as I have observed it on many occasions, goes like this: success creates some degree of marked dominance which in turn produces much growth. After a while keeping the ever-larger organisation under control becomes the primary challenge. So attention turns inward and managerial competencies are nurtured. With a strong emphasis on management but not leadership, bureaucracy and an inward focus takeover. But with continued success, the result mostly of market dominance, the problem often goes unaddressed and an unhealthy arrogance begins to evolve. All of these characteristics then make any transformation effort much more difficult. Arrogant managers can over-evaluate their current performance and competitive position, listen poorly and learn slowly. Inwardly focused employees can have difficulty seeing the very forces that present threats and opportunities. Bureaucratic cultures can smother those who want to respond to shifting conditions. And the lack of leadership leaves no force inside these organisations to break out of the morass.
Q1. Why did companies and universities develop programmes to prepare managers in such a large number?
a. (A) Companies and universities wanted to generate funds through these programmes
b. (B) The large number of organisations were created as they needed managers in good number
c. (C) Organisations did not want to spend their scarce resources in training managers
d. (D) Organisations wanted to create communication network through trained managers
Q2. How has the author defined management?
a. It is the process of adapting organisations to changing circumstances.
b. It is the system of aligning people with the direction it has taken.
c. It refers to creating a vision to help direct the change effectively.
d. Creating better performance through customer orientation.
Q3. What is the historical reason for many organisations not having leadership?
a. A view that leaders are born, they are not made
b. Leaders lack managerial skills and organisations need managers
c. Leaders are weak in carrying out traditional functions of management
d. Leaders allow too much complacency in organisations
Q4. Which of the following characteristics help organisations in their transformation efforts?
a. Emphasis on leadership but not management
b. A strong and dogmatic culture
c. Bureaucratic and inward looking approach
d. Failing to acknowledge the value of customers and shareholders
Q5. Which of the following is similar in meaning of the word 'smother' as used in the passage?
Consider the following passage and answer the questions that follow accordingly.
Humans may have reached northern Europe (including England) 200 000 years earlier than previously thought. Stone tools found in England suggest that early humans were there 700 000 years ago.
The stone tools were discovered at a site in Suffolk. The tools have been dated using several methods.
Firstly, the magnetic polarity of iron-containing minerals in the sedimentary rocks where the tools were found is aligned north-south, just as it is today. Since the Earth’s magnetic field underwent a polarity reversal 780 000 years ago, the site must be younger than that.
The tools were found beneath glacial ice deposits laid down during a period 450 000 years ago when the region was blanketed in ice, so they must be older than this. Also present at the site were fossils of a water vole Mimomys, which was superseded by another vole species called Arvicola around 500 000 years ago.
A new amino-acid dating technique gives an estimate of 700 000 years old. The method was used to measure the breakdown of amino acids within shells of a freshwater snail species found with the tools at the site.
Q1).When were humans previously thought to have reached northern Europe?
A). 450 000 years ago
B). 500 000 years ago
C). 700 000 years ago
D). 900 000 years ago
Q2). Without the amino acid evidence, which one of the following is the best estimate of the age of the tools?
A). 500 000 years old
B). 700 000 years old
C). 450 000 to 500 000 years old
D). 500 000 to 780 000 years old
Q3). Of the following, which best indicates the value of the water vole fossils to the dating of the site?
A). The fossils confirm the date of the glacial deposit.
B). The fossils suggest that the glacial deposits were 50 000 years older than first thought.
C). The Arvicola fossils indicate that the site is more than 500 000 years old.
D). The Mimomys fossils indicate that the site is more than 500 000 years old.
Q4). If found, which one of the following would place the most doubt on the conclusion that early humans were at the site 700 000 years ago?
A). the freshwater snail species was part of the diet of Mimomys
B). the freshwater snail species was part of the diet of Arvicola
C). the freshwater snail species became extinct 500 000 years ago
D). the freshwater snail species did not exist before 500 000 years ago
In country X, democratic, conservative and justice parties have fought three civil wars in twenty years. TO restore stability an agreement is reached to rotate the top offices President, Prime Minister and Army Chief among the parties so that each party controls one and only one office at all times. The three top office holders must each have two deputies, one from each of the other parties. Each deputy must choose a staff composed of equally members of his or her chiefs party and member of the third party.
Q1.When Justice party holds one of the top offices, which of the following cannot be true
(a) Some of the staff members within that office are justice party members.
(b) Some of the staff members within that office are democratic party members.
(c) Two of the deputies within the other offices are justice party members.
(d) Two of the deputies within the other offices are conservative party members.
(e) Some of the staff members within the other offices are justice party members.
Q2.When the democratic party holds presidency, the staff of the prime minister's deputies are composed
I. One-fourth of democratic party members
II. One-half of justice party members and one-fourth of conservative party members
III. One-half of conservative party members and one-fourth of justice party members.
(a) I only
(b) I and II only
(c) II or III but not both
(d) I and II or I and III
(e) None of these
Q3.Which of the following is allowable under the rules as stated:
(a) More than half of the staff within a given office belonging to a single party
(b) Half of the staff within a given office belonging to a single party
(c) Any person having a member of the same party as his or her immediate superior
(d) Half the total number of staff members in all three offices belonging to a single party
(e) Half the staff members in a given office belonging to parties different from the party of the top office holder in that office.
Q4.The office of the Army Chief passes from Conservative to Justice party. Which of the following must be fired.
(a) The democratic deputy and all staff members belonging to Justice party
(b) Justice party deputy and all his or hers staff members
(c) Justice party deputy and half of his Conservative staff members in the chief of staff office
(d) The Conservative deputy and all of his or her staff members belonging to Conservative party
(e) No deputies and all staff members belonging to conservative parties.
Q5. In recommendations to the board of trustees a tuition increase of $500 per year, the president of the university said "There were no student demonstrations over the previous increases of $300 last year and $200 the year before". If the president's statement is accurate then which of the following can be validly inferred from the information given:
I. Most students in previous years felt that the increases were justified because of increased operating costs.
II. Student apathy was responsible for the failure of students to protest the previous tuition increases.
III. Students are not likely to demonstrate over new tuition increases.
(a) I only
(b) II only
(c) I or II but not both
(d) I, II and III
Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow ::
Mount Vesuvius, a volcano located between the ancient Italian cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum, has received much attention because of its frequent and destructive eruptions. The most famous of these eruptions occurred in A. D. 79.
The volcano had been inactive for centuries. There was little warning of the coming eruption,although one account unearthed by archaeologists says that a hard rain and a strong wind had disturbed the celestial calm during the preceding night. Early the next morning, the volcano poured a huge river of molten rock down upon Herculaneum, completely burying the city and filling in the harbor with coagulated lava.
Meanwhile, on the other side of the mountain, cinders, stone and ash rained down on Pompeii.Sparks from the burning ash ignited the combustible rooftops quickly. Large portions of the city were destroyed in the conflagration. Fire, however, was not the only cause of destruction.Poisonous sulphuric gases saturated the air. These heavy gases were not buoyant in the atmosphere and therefore sank toward the earth and suffocated people.
Over the years, excavations of Pompeii and Herculaneum have revealed a great deal about the behavior of the volcano. By analyzing data, much as a zoologist dissects a specimen animal,scientist have concluded that the eruption changed large portions of the area's geography. For instance, it turned the Sarno River from its course and raised the level of the beach along the Bay of Naples. Meteorologists studying these events have also concluded that Vesuvius caused a huge tidal wave that affected the world's climate.
In addition to making these investigations, archaeologists have been able to study the skeletons of victims by using distilled water to wash away the volcanic ash. By strengthening the brittle bones with acrylic paint, scientists have been able to examine the skeletons and draw conclusions about the diet and habits of the residents. Finally, the excavations at both Pompeii and Herculaneum have yielded many examples of classical art, such as jewelry made of bronze,which is an alloy of copper and tin.
The eruption of Mount Vesuvius and its tragic consequences have provided us with a wealth of data about the effects that volcanoes can have on the surrounding area. Today volcanologists can locate and predict eruptions, saving lives and preventing the destruction of cities and cultures.
Q1. Herculaneum and its harbor were buried under ___lava.
E. answer not available
Q2. The poisonous gases were not ___ in the air.
A. able to float
C. able to evaporate
E. able to condense
Q3. Scientists analyzed data about Vesuvius in the same way that a zoologist ___ a specimen.
A. describes in detail
B. studies by cutting apart
E. answer not available
Q4. ____have concluded that the volcanic eruption caused a tidal wave.
A. Scientist who study oceans
B. Scientist who study atmospheric conditions
C. Scientist who study ash
D. Scientist who study animal behavior
E. Answer not available in article
Q5. Scientist have used ___water to wash away volcanic ash from the skeletons of victims.
Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow ::
After adapting Phoenician graphic-alphabet in 900 BC, the Greek employed a vowel system and added 6 more letters (Ω omega, ψ psi, φ phi, € eta, theta, Z zeta) to make it a 24 letter alphabet.
Earlier, β was pronounced as ‘b’. Now in Modern Greek it is pronounced as ‘v’.It took a long time to develop the letter. There were many Greek dialects and there were certain differences in their style of writing. Lastly the lonian style of lettering was adopted. In general and after 400 BC the letters became uniform. The literature and art flourished mainly in the classical Greek period.
Although the dialects of Greek were mutually intelligible within a normal limit of understanding,the pronunciation of words and accents differed from period to period and from dialect to dialects. The short and long sounds of vowels also varied in different dialects and the political situations in the country also brought many changes with the inter migration of the dialects. But,during the establishment of Alexander’s empire in the 4th century BC and after the breakdown of old political barriers, uniformity took place in the spoken language. This form of language was called the Koine (means the common language) or Hellenistic Greek (400BC- 600AD).
It replaced the other dialects and the speaking and writing systems were much standardized.Grammar also changed in different periods. A change of language is noticed in the writings of Plato and Demosthenes. The spoken language still kept on changing even during the period of Byzantine empire(500-1500AD) and the written language kept on improving which created a big rift between the local vernacular and the literary greek. This situation gave birth to a separate kind of “demotic” language of general everyday use.
All the major phonological and grammatical changes which are seen between koine and the modern greek mostly happened within this period. Earlier there were 3 numbers for pronouns and verbs, singular, dual and plural. Then “dual” was dropped and only singular and plural were left.
From ancient Greek to modern Greek the formation of many words were also changed. For example the ancient Greek word pente(5) became pende, hepta and octo (7 and 8) became efta and okhto, paidia(boys) became pedhya and so on. There were also semantic changes in certain words just as : the word alogho which was previously meant irrational, later it meant “horse”,“skiazome” which previously meant “I am in shadow”, later it meant “ I fear”.
The vocabulary of greek language consists of local collections and borrowings. Considering the origin of Greeks , there were many Mycenaean words in 2nd millennium BC whose original form corresponded to certain greek words like Leon (Lion), onos (Ass), plephas (ivory) etc.
By using pre-verbs, by forming compounds and by adding prefixes or suffixes to this prime words they enriched their vocabulary. Later on they also borrowed a considerable number of word from other sources, such as, Italian, Turkish, French and also Latin.
Q1.What is the drawback of the Greek dialects in spite of their being intelligible?
a)it employed a vowel system
b)it took a long time to develop the letter
c)the pronounciation ans accept different from period to period and from dialect to dialect
d)There were difference in their style of writing
Q2.There came uniformity in the language with
a)The breakdown of old political barriers in the 4th century B.C. during the establishment of
b)the variation in the long and short vowels
c)the changes that had occurred in the grammar
d)the intermigration of dialeces
Q3.What was the cause of the rift between the local vernacular and the literary Greek?
a)the change in the writing of Plato and Demosthenss
b)the adoption of the Phoenician graphic alphabet
c)the differences in the style of writing of Greeek dialects
d)the spoken language kept changing while there was improvement with the written language
Q4.How was the vocabulary of the Greek language enriched?
a)by forming compounds,using pre-verbs and adding prefixes and suffixes to the main words
b)by local collections and borrowings
c)with the use of of many Mycehaean words
d)with the semantic changes in certain words
Q5.Which of the following statements is/are true,according to the passage?
1)many European language have words borrowed from the Greek
2)demotic language came into being because of the rift between the vernacular and the literary form of Greek
3)In the Modern Greek,there is only one dialect
c)1 & 3
Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow ::
Marie Curie was one of the most accomplished scientists in history. Together with her husband, Pierre, she discovered radium, an element widely used for treating cancer, and studied uranium and other radioactive substances. Pierre and Marie's amicable collaboration later helped to unlock the secrets of the atom.
Marie was born in 1867 in Warsaw, Poland, where her father was a professor of physics. At the early age, she displayed a brilliant mind and a blithe personality. Her great exuberance for learning prompted her to continue with her studies after high school. She became disgruntled, however, when she learned that the university in Warsaw was closed to women. Determined to receive a higher education, she defiantly left Poland and in 1891 entered the Sorbonne, a French university, where she earned her master's degree and doctorate in physics.
Marie was fortunate to have studied at the Sorbonne with some of the greatest scientists of her day, one of whom was Pierre Curie. Marie and Pierre were married in 1895 and spent many productive years working together in the physics laboratory. A short time after they discovered radium, Pierre was killed by a horse-drawn wagon in 1906. Marie was stunned by this horrible misfortune and endured heartbreaking anguish. Despondently she recalled their close relationship and the joy that they had shared in scientific research. The fact that she had two young daughters to raise by herself greatly increased her distress.
Curie's feeling of desolation finally began to fade when she was asked to succeed her husband as a physics professor at the Sorbonne. She was the first woman to be given a professorship at the world-famous university. In 1911 she received the Nobel Prize in chemistry for isolating radium.
Although Marie Curie eventually suffered a fatal illness from her long exposure to radium, she never became disillusioned about her work. Regardless of the consequences, she had dedicated herself to science and to revealing the mysteries of the physical world.
Q1. The Curies' ____ collaboration helped to unlock the secrets of the atom.
Q2. Marie had a bright mind and a __personality.
Q3. When she learned that she could not attend the university in Warsaw, she felt___.
E. none of the above
Q4. Marie ___ by leaving Poland and traveling to France to enter the Sorbonne.
A. challenged authority
B. showed intelligence
D. was distressed
E. answer not available in article
Q5. _____she remembered their joy together.
Q6. Her ____ began to fade when she returned to the Sorbonne to succeed her husband.
Q7. Even though she became fatally ill from working with radium, Marie Curie was never ____.
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